OpenMRS Evidence Hub

Have you written a published paper about OpenMRS? Know of one that's not listed here? Add it!

This page is our online repository of the many studies conducted exploring OpenMRS. Collectively, these studies provide strong evidence for a variety of use cases: the impact of EMR use on care, secondary data use for site or regional or global program guidelines improvement, and the community open source model. The OpenMRS Community maintains the OpenMRS Evidence Base and adds new studies as they are discovered.

Over 3,860 publications are noted online involving OpenMRS - search query here.


This page is new and a work in progress as of August 2023. We are updating this with the thousands (warning) of articles published on OpenMRS with a bias towards recent articles from within the last few years.

CategoryCitationYearCountryReference KeyURLMisc. Notes

HIS Leadership

HIS Maturity

eHealth Leaders


Vumbugwa, P., Puttkammer, N., Majaha, M., Stampfly, S., Biondich, P., Shivers, J. E., ... & Feldacker, C. (2024). Leveraging Health Information System Maturity Assessments to Guide Strategic Priorities: Perspectives from African Leaders. medRxiv, 2024-02.2024General (Africa)Vumbugwa 2024 helpful quotes from Ministry of Health and HIS sector leaders on the challenges they face. 

Distributed Software Development

OpenMRS version 1 (O1)

HISP India

Krishna, S. (2023). Challenges and Solutions in Distributed Software Development: A case study from India on Hospital Information System built on OpenMRS framework. Reprosentralen, University of Oslo, Autumn 2023.2023IndiaKrishna 2023 of OpenMRS version 1 platform, useage in India by the HISP India team, visits at multiple healthcare sites in India, and challenges faced by software teams engaged in georgraphically distributed software development. 
Gastroenterology, Hospital

Macatiag IV, J. J., Mariño, B. A. M., Pajes, A. N. N. I., & Yasay, E. B. (2024). Adenoma Detection Rate and Polyp Detection Rate among Gastroenterology Fellows and Consultants in a Tertiary Hospital in the Philippines: A Cross-sectional Study. Acta Medica Philippina.

2024PhilippinesMacatiag 2024 from the OpenMRS system used at a tertiary hospital in the Philippines was used to assess Adenoma and Polyp Detection rates. 

Mental Health

Rural, Urban, Slum

Adult, Adolescent

Kallakuri, S., Gara, S., Godi, M., Yatirajula, S. K., Paslawar, S., Daniel, M., ... & Maulik, P. K. (2024). Learnings From Implementation of Technology-Enabled Mental Health Interventions in India: Implementation Report. JMIR Medical Informatics, 12, e47504.

2024IndiaKallakuri 2024 mobile apps were used throughout different contexts (rural, urban; adult, adolescent) in India to evaluate mental health. All tools were actually built on OpenMRS.  




Njuba, L., Gómez‐Morantes, J. E., Herrera, A., & Camacho, S. (2024). Health information systems in extreme contexts: Using mobile phones to fight AIDS in Uganda. The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, e12314.

2024UgandaNjuba 2024

Excellent review of how OpenMRS has been used for HIV care in Uganda, and implementation details. 

Insightful Quote: "In the KHCIV ART clinic alone, (before) the OpenMRS (system) was introduced, there was a large room full of paper files of HIV patients missing from care, with only 23% of patients active in the program, meaning that the remaining 77% have been lost in care, died, or migrated."


Regulation Compliance

Code Review

Tang, F., & Østvold, B. M. (2024). Finding Privacy-relevant Source Code. arXiv preprint arXiv:2401.07316.2024GlobalTang 2024 study revealed that only 3.9% of the total OpenMRS codebase is made up of methods that are privacy-relevant and involved in personal data processing. This result highlights the precision of their approach in pinpointing privacy-relevant methods in applications.
Open Source eHealthHaines, N. (2024). Sustainable Translation of Digital Health Technologies. Wellcome Open Res, 9(19), 19.2024GlobalHaines 2024 background on OpenMRS and comparison with other well known Open Source digital health solutions. 




Lober, W. B., Quiles, C., Wagner, S., Cassagnol, R., Lamothes, R., Alexis, D. R. P., Sutton, P., & Puttkammer, N. Three Years Experience with the Implementation of a Networked Electronic Medical Record in Haiti.2024HaitiLober 2024PDF


Payment Fraud Prevention

Saranya, A., Naresh, R., Karuppiah, S., & Jenifer, M. (2024). Development of trust-based authorization and authentication framework for secure electronic health payment in cloud environment. Soft Computing, 1-16.2024GlobalSaranya 2024
Health information exchange HIE; Data quality; Viral loadAniekwe, C., Cuffe, K., Audu, I., Nalda, N., Ibezim, B., Nnakwe, M., ... & Shrivastava, R. (2023). Assessing the effect of electronic health information exchange on the completeness and validity of data for measuring viral load testing turnaround time in Nigeria. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 174, 105059.2023NigeriaAniekwe 2023 evidence of significant improvement in the quality of data available to measure viral load turnaround time with the implementation of HIE



Healthcare Workers

De Schacht C, Nhacule E, Belo C on behalf of the COVIV Study Collaborative Group, et al. Measuring the burden of SARS-CoV-2 infection among persons living with HIV and healthcare workers and its impact on service delivery in Mozambique: protocol of a prospective cohort studyBMJ Open 2023;13:e068988. 

2023MozambiqueDe Schacht 202310.1136/bmjopen-2022-068988 
PHC Primary Health CareKumar, Rajesh. Application of digital technologies in primary healthcare: Opportunities & challenges. Indian Journal of Medical Research 157(4):p 276-279, April 2023. | DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.ijmr_3056_21 2023IndiaKumar 202310.4103/ijmr.ijmr_3056_21  

Machine Learning


Dixon, A., Thengo, L., Kitsao, E., Matiya, K., Barasa, M., Nyirongo, R., ... & Mbae, S. (2023). Community and Facility Health Information System Integration in Malawi: A Comparison of Machine Learning and Probabilistic Record Linkage Methods. ACM Journal on Computing and Sustainable Societies.2023MalawiDixon 2023 


Visual Impairment

Human-Computer Interaction (HCI)

OpenMRS v2

Moncy, M. M., Pilli, M., Somasundaram, M., Purkayastha, S., & Fulton, C. R. (2023). Evaluation of accessibility of open-source EHRs for visually impaired users. arXiv preprint arXiv:2311.02531.2023GeneralMoncy 2023 


Retention, Resistance

Joaquim, L., Miranda, M. N., Pimentel, V., Martins, M. D. R. O., Nhampossa, T., Abecasis, A., & Pingarilho, M. (2023). Retention in Care and Virological Failure among Adult HIV-Positive Patients on First-Line Antiretroviral Treatment in Maputo, Mozambique. Viruses, 15(10), 1978.2023MozambiqueJoaquim 2023 
Anemia / AnaemiaAnton-Vazquez V, Mnzava D, Okuma J, Mlembe S, Lo Riso L, Sanchez JM, et al. (2023) Improving anaemia diagnosis using peripheral blood smear with remote interpretation in adults living with HIV with moderate to severe anaemia: A prospective study nested within the Kilombero and Ulanga antiretroviral cohort. PLoS ONE 18(10): e0293084. 2023TanzaniaAnton-Vazquez 2023



HIV Index Case Testing (ICT)

Mbah, Rogers, Honoré, Ngend. A Review of Index Case Testing Induced Intimate Partner Violence and Electronic Management of Information in HIV Care. xx (2023). 2023CameroonMbah 202310.4236/etsn.2023.124005 Recommendations: • Data tools for HIV AIDS should integrate IPV indicators. • Include management of IPV survivors in existing EMR systems. • Develop more comprehensive EMRs that include complete care continua, especially for low-income settings. • Countries with limited resources should consider OPENMRS to implement EMR. • Screening for IPV among HIV patients should be scaled up to reduce IPV incidence. • IPV counseling services should be offered post-HIV test counseling to control IPV incidence rates.



Mehmood, N.Q., Mahfooz, S.Z., Faroom, S. et al. Usability evaluation of interoperability interfaces in electronic medical record systems. Health Serv Outcomes Res Method (2023). 2023

Open Source


ICD 10

Capacity Building

Mougou, S. (2023). Building Stronger Healthcare in Tunisia: EHR Implementation with Open Software and Local Capacity Building. In Open Infrastructure Fund/Fondo de Infraestructura Abierta.2023TunisiaMougou, 2023 three EHR systems to determine their suitability for meeting the requirements discussed by working groups. Assessing the capability to: integrate both clinical data and genomic data; the capacity to incorporate standardized medical vocabulary in both English and French languages; along with its alignment with ICD10 standards
Open SourceKrasodomski-jones, A., & Eaves, D. (2023). Laying the Foundation for the Future: Open Source Sustainability and the Adoption of Digital Public Goods.2023GeneralKrasodomski-jones, 2023

Prenatal, ANC
Prieto-Egido, I., Garrido Madrigal, A., & Barrena García, C. (2023, February). Development and Validation of a Health Information System to Improve Prenatal Controls in Guatemala. In International Congress on Information and Communication Technology (pp. 109-127). Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore.2023GuatemalaPrieto-Egido 2023

Magrabi, F., Cresswell, K., & Fraser, H. S. (2023). International dimensions of clinical decision support systems. In Clinical Decision Support and Beyond (pp. 145-188). Content Repository Only!.2023Kenya, RwandaMagrabi 2023

HIVMnzava, D., Okuma, J., Ndege, R., Kimera, N., Ntamatungiro, A., Nyuri, A., ... & Weisser, M. (2023). Decentralization of viral load testing to improve HIV care and treatment cascade in rural Tanzania: observational study from the Kilombero and Ulanga Antiretroviral Cohort. BMC Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 222.2023TanzaniaMnzava 2023

Open Source
Software Architecture, Architectural Smells, Software Performance

Arcelli Fontana, F., Camilli, M., Rendina, D., Taraboi, A. G., & Trubiani, C. (2023, June). Impact of Architectural Smells on Software Performance: an Exploratory Study. In Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering (pp. 22-31).2023General
Team from: Italy
Fontana 2023

Thyroid Cancer
Bisquera, Valparaiso, Perez, Uy, Espiritu, Pialago, Clarit. A Single Institution Experience on the Correlation of Kwak Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System Score (Kwak TIRADS) and Malignancy of Thyroid Nodules seen in a Tertiary Hospital Setting. World Cancer Research Journal, 10, e2498.2023PhilippinesBisquera 2023

Medical Training

Capacity Building

Stephanie Medlock, Kim J. Ploegmakers, Ronald Cornet, Kim Win Pang, Use of an open-source electronic health record to establish a “virtual hospital”: A tale of two curricula, International Journal of Medical Informatics, Volume 169, 2023, 104907, ISSN 1386-5056, 2023

Home monitoring

Sikder, A., Dickhoner, J., Kysh, L., Musheghyan, L., Shekherdimian, S., Levine, B., & Espinoza, J. (2022). International Collaboration to Develop a Remote Monitoring Web App for COVID-19 Patients in Armenia: Design and Development With Agile Methodology. JMIR Human Factors, 9(4), e40110.2022ArmeniaSikder 2022

The software was designed and developed over 2 months using human-centered design and agile sprints. Once live, 5087 patient records were created for 439 unique patients.

Disease Survillance

Fataha, N. V. F. A., Gaveta, S., Langa, J. C., Banze, A. R., Sacarlal, J., Rossetto, E. V., ... & Kellogg, T. A. (2022). Evaluation of the Mozambique Antiretroviral Therapy (MozART) database as an antiretroviral therapy patient surveillance system, 2017-2018. The Pan African Medical Journal, 42.2022MozambiqueFataha 2022

Mirza, Muzna, Yoran Grant-Greene, Marie PJS Valles, Patrice Joseph, Stanley Juin, Stephan Brice, Patrick Dely et al. "Leveraging PEPFAR-supported health information systems for COVID-19 pandemic response." Emerging Infectious Diseases 28, no. Suppl 1 (2022): S49.2022HaitiMirza 2022

TuberculosisSiamisang, K., Rankgoane-Pono, G., Madisa, T. M., Mudiayi, T., & Tlhakanelo, J. T. (2022). Outcomes and predictors of tuberculosis mortality in Kweneng West District, Botswana: a retrospective cohort study. The Pan African Medical Journal, 42.2022BotswanaSiamisang 2022

OMOPEspinoza, J., Sikder, A., Lulejian, A., & Levine, B. (2022). Development of an OpenMRS-OMOP ETL tool to support informatics research and collaboration in LMICS. Available at SSRN 4075625.2022GeneralEspinoza 2022

Public Health
Open Source
Wanger, J., Cullen, T., Dunbar, E. L., & Flowers, J. L. (2023). Open-source software for public health: opportunities and approaches. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 50(8), S31.2022GeneralWanger 2022

Kisaka, A. M. (2022). Test and treat policy: Effect on ART initiation and retention and health system barriers and facilitators to implementation in AHF Uganda Cares Clinics in Central Uganda (Doctoral dissertation, Makerere University).2022UgandaKisaka 2022

Results: The 30-days initiation rate was 62.7% before and 90.8% after the T&T policy rollout.

CDSFraser, H. S., Mugisha, M., Remera, E., Ngenzi, J. L., Richards, J., Santas, X., ... & Umubyeyi, A. (2022). User perceptions and use of an enhanced electronic health record in Rwanda with and without clinical alerts: cross-sectional survey. JMIR Medical Informatics, 10(5), e32305.2022RwandaFraser 2022

A survey of user experience of a well established HIV implementation by the Rwanda MOH. Part of a larger OpenMRS research study of 112 health facilities in Rwanda.
The EHR top uses were to access client data easily or quickly (62/90, 69%), update patient records (56/89, 63%), create new patient records (49/88, 56%), generate various reports (38/85, 45%), and review previous records (43/89, 48%). In addition, >90% (81/90) of respondents agreed that the EHR made it easier to make informed decisions, was worth using, and has improved patient information quality. .... In intervention sites, staff were significantly more likely to update existing records (P=.04), generate summaries before (P<.001) or during visits (P=.01)

Labor, Delivery
Dinh, N., Agarwal, S., Avery, L., Ponnappan, P., Chelangat, J., Amendola, P., ... & Bartlett, L. (2022). Implementation Outcomes Assessment of a Digital Clinical Support Tool for Intrapartum Care in Rural Kenya: Observational Analysis. JMIR Formative Research, 6(6), e34741.2022KenyaDinh 2022

An example of the use of the VecnaCARES maternal child health package using OpenMRS and their custom hardware package for sites with no infrastructure.
Ahimbisibwe, J. (2022). Factors associated with adherence to Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) among adolescents attending HIV clinic at China-Uganda Friendship Hospital-Naguru, Uganda (Doctoral dissertation, Makerere University).2022UgandaAhimbisibwe 2022


Ochoa, Rodrigo, Álvarez, Alessa, Freitas, Jordan, Purkayastha, Saptarshi, & Vélez, Iván D.. (2022). NTD Health: An electronic medical record system for neglected tropical diseases. Biomédica, 42(4), 602-610. Epub December 01, 2022. 2022
Open SourcePaton C, Braa J, Muhire A, Marco-Ruiz L, Kobayashi S, Fraser H, Falcón L, Marcelo A. Open Source Digital Health Software for Resilient, Accessible and Equitable Healthcare Systems. Yearb Med Inform. 2022 Aug;31(1):67-73. doi: 10.1055/s-0042-1742508. Epub 2022 Jun 2. PMID: 35654431; PMCID: PMC9719763.2022GlobalPaton 2022
Mentor Mothers
Carlucci, J. G., Yu Z., Gonzalez P., Bravo M., Amorim G., das Felicidades Cugara, C., Guambe, H., Mucanhenga, J., Silva, W., Tique, J. A., Alvim, M. F. S., Graves, E., De Schact, C., Wester, W. The Effect of a Mentor Mothers Program on Maternal and Infant PMTCT Outcomes in Zambézia Province, Mozambique.2021MozambiqueCarlucci 2023

Global Goods
Open Source
Verma N, Mamlin B, Flowers J, Acharya S, Labrique A, Cullen T. OpenMRS as a global good: Impact, opportunities, challenges, and lessons learned from fifteen years of implementation. Int J Med Inform. 2021 May;149:104405. doi: 10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2021.104405. Epub 2021 Feb 5. PMID: 33639327.2021GlobalVerma 2021

Mamlin, Burke W., Jennifer E. Shivers, Nancy K. Glober, and Jonathan J. Dick. "OpenMRS as an emergency EMR—How we used a global good to create an emergency EMR in a week." International Journal of Medical Informatics 149 (2021): 104433.2021USAMamlin 2021

ICD 11
Mugisha, M., Byiringiro, J. B., Uwase, M., Abizeyimana, T., Ndikubwimana, B., Karema, N., ... & Tumusiime, D. (2020). Integration of International Classification of Diseases version 11 application program interface (API) in the Rwandan electronic medical records (openMRS): findings from two district hospitals in Rwanda. In The Importance of Health Informatics in Public Health during a Pandemic (pp. 280-283). IOS Press.2020RwandaMugisha 2020

Michael Mugisha and colleague carry out research and implementation work with OpenMRS in Rwanda.

Machine Learning

Comparison of machine learning methods for predicting viral failure: a case study using electronic health record data.
Kimaina A, Dick J, DeLong A, Chrysanthopoulou SA, Kantor R, Hogan JW.Stat Commun Infect Dis. 2020 Nov 12;12(Suppl1):20190017.
Kimaina 2020

Translation of AMRS-based research for improving patient care.

This study was one of the precursors for a large research study on the use of machine learning to improve loss to follow up of HIV patients in Kenya 

Kabukye, J. K., Casaceli, A. M., Ball, E., De Armas, M., & Cornet, R. (2019). Towards an open-source oncology electronic medical records system for low-resource settings: development of chemotherapy management in OpenMRS. In MEDINFO 2019: Health and Wellbeing e-Networks for All (pp. 634-638). IOS Press.2019Uganda
Kabukye 2019


Patient Transfer

Rweikiza, G., & Machuve, D. (2019). Development of medical records exchange system-a case of OpenMRS and Care2X. International Journal of Advanced Technology and Engineering Exploration, 6(52), 77-83.2019TanzaniaRweikiza 2019


DiabetesYandrapalli, B. T., Jones, J., & Purkayastha, S. (2019). Development and Implementation of a Dashboard for Diabetes Care Management in OpenMRS. arXiv preprint arXiv:1910.11437.2019General

Yandrapalli 2019

HIVHumphrey JM, Genberg BL, Keter A, Musick B, Apondi E, Gardner A, Hogan JW, Wools-Kaloustian K. Viral suppression among children and their caregivers living with HIV in western Kenya. J Int AIDS Soc. 2019 Apr;22(4):e25272. doi: 10.1002/jia2.25272. PubMed PMID: 30983148; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6462809.2019KenyaHumphrey 2018

Helped understand the link between parental viral suppression and child suppression

Radiology, RISGichoya, J. W., Kohli, M., Ivange, L., Schmidt, T. S., & Purkayastha, S. (2018). A platform for innovation and standards evaluation: a case study from the OpenMRS open-source radiology information system. Journal of digital imaging, 31, 361-370.2018GeneralGichoya 2018

Holmes CB, Yiannoutsos CT, Elul B, Bukusi E, Ssali J, Kambugu A, Musick BS, Cohen C, Williams C, Diero L, Padian N, Wools-Kaloustian KK. Increased prevalence of pregnancy and comparative risk of program attrition among individuals starting HIV treatment in East Africa. PLoS One. 2018 Jan 17;13(1):e0190828. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0190828. eCollection 2018. PubMed PMID: 29342180.2018
Holmes 2018

Helped understand the impact of pregnancy and sex on retention in care

Drug Resistance

Wools-Kaloustian K, Marete I, Ayaya S, Sohn AH, Van Nguyen L, Li S, Leroy V, Musick BS, Newman JE, Edmonds A, Davies MA, Eboua FT, Obama MT, Yotebieng M, Sawry S, Mofenson LM, Yiannoutsos CT. Time to First-Line ART Failure and Time to Second-Line ART Switch in the IeDEA Pediatric Cohort. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes. 2018; PubMed [journal] PMID: 295095902018

Wools-Kaloustian 2018

Helped identify delays in switching failed regimens.

Open Source
Syzdykova A, Malta A, Zolfo M, Diro E, Oliveira JL. Open-Source Electronic Health Record Systems for Low-Resource Settings: Systematic Review. JMIR Med Inform. 2017 Nov 13;5(4):e44. doi: 10.2196/medinform.8131. PMID: 29133283; PMCID: PMC5703976.2017GeneralSyzdykova 2017

ANC, MCHE. Kimei and K. Kalegele, "Digitization of antenatal health card and integration with OpenMRS platform: System analysis and design," 2017 IST-Africa Week Conference (IST-Africa), Windhoek, Namibia, 2017, pp. 1-7, doi: 10.23919/ISTAFRICA.2017.8101976.2017TanzaniaKimei 2017

EMRBashiri, A., & Ghazisaeedi, M. (2017). Open MRS softwares: effective approaches in management of patients' health information. Int J Commun Med Publ Health, 4(11), 4.2017GlobalBashiri 2017'_health_information/links/5b0021030f7e9be94bd8c8aa/Open-MRS-softwares-effective-approaches-in-management-of-patients-health-information.pdf

Oza S, Jazayeri D, Teich J, Ball E, Nankubuge P, Rwebembera J, Wing K, Sesay A, Kanter A, Ramos G, Walton D, Cummings R, Checchi F, Fraser H. Development and Deployment of the OpenMRS-Ebola Electronic Health Record System for an Ebola Treatment Center in Sierra Leone
J Med Internet Res 2017;19(8):e294
DOI: 10.2196/jmir.7881
2017Sierra LeoneOza 2017

The rapid assembly of a community of designers and developers to build a new tablet based UI and workflow for an Ebola treatment program in Sierra Leone. One of a handful of EHR like applications actually implemented and used for clinical care during the Ebola outbreak. 

Open Source


Kasthurirathne SN, Mamlin BW, Cullen T. Leveraging the Value of Human Relationships to Improve Health Outcomes. Lessons learned from the OpenMRS Electronic Health Record System. Appl Clin Inform. 2017 Feb 1;8(1):108-121. 

2017GlobalKasthurirathne 2017
Kariuki, J. M., Manders, E. J., Richards, J., Oluoch, T., Kimanga, D., Wanyee, S., ... & Santas, X. (2016). Automating indicator data reporting from health facility EMR to a national aggregate data system in Kenya: An Interoperability field-test using OpenMRS and DHIS2. Online journal of public health informatics, 8(2).2016KenyaKariuki 2016

Patient Outcomes

Evaluating strategies to improve HIV care outcomes in Kenya: a modelling study.
Olney JJ, Braitstein P, Eaton JW, Sang E, Nyambura M, Kimaiyo S, McRobie E, Hogan JW, Hallett TB.Lancet HIV. 2016 Dec;3(12):e592-e600.
2016KenyaOlney 2016

Kasthurirathne, S. N., Mamlin, B., Kumara, H., Grieve, G., & Biondich, P. (2015). Enabling better interoperability for healthcare: lessons in developing a standards based application programing interface for electronic medical record systems. Journal of medical systems, 39, 1-8.2015GeneralKasthurirathne 2015

Informatics Capacity Building

Building Comprehensive and Sustainable Health Informatics Institutions in Developing Countries: Moi University Experience.
Were MC, Siika A, Ayuo PO, Atwoli L, Esamai F.Stud Health Technol Inform. 2015;216:520-4.
Were 2015

Building informatics capacity in Kenya; additional information on AmpathMRS. Per Ampath: "The publications using AMRS have helped us identify key gaps in the HIV care and treatment program including the high rate of LTFU from the first paper we published. We also used AMRS to inform MOH about VL testing in pregnancy a few years ago though this was not published as a paper. More recent use of AMRS data has been in IeDEA analysis that have looked at a number of things including new guideline adoption."

Geng EH, Odeny TA, Lyamuya RE, Nakiwogga-Muwanga A, Diero L, Bwana M, Muyindike W, Braitstein P, Somi GR, Kambugu A, Bukusi EA, Wenger M, Wools-Kaloustian KK, Glidden DV, Yiannoutsos CT, Martin J. Estimation of Mortality among HIV-infected people on antiretroviral therapy treatment in east Africa: a sampling based approach in an observational, multisite, cohort study. Lancet HIV. 2015 Mar 1;2(3):e107-e116. PubMed PMID: 26120593; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4480204.2015
Geng 2015

Identified LTFU patients to be tracked to help understand what was going on.

Informatics Capacity Building

"These are good problems to have…": establishing a collaborative research partnership in East Africa.
Tierney WM, Nyandiko WN, Siika AM, Wools-Kaloustian K, Sidle JE, Kiplagat J, Bell A, Inui TS.J Gen Intern Med. 2013 Sep;28 Suppl 3(Suppl 3):S625-38.
Tierney 2013

Building informatics capacity in Kenya; additional information on AmpathMRS

Decision Support (CDS)

Computer-generated reminders and quality of pediatric HIV care in a resource-limited setting.
Were MC, Nyandiko WM, Huang KT, Slaven JE, Shen C, Tierney WM, Vreeman RC.Pediatrics. 2013 Mar;131(3):e789-96.
Were 2013
One of the most important clinical evaluation studies of the  impact of OpenMRS in improving care.


Open Source


Kasthurirathne, S. N. (2012). Designing and developing an open source medical informatics module. XRDS: Crossroads 19(2), 20-23. doi:10.1145/2382856.2382866 

Kasthurirathne 2012
Open Sourcede Abajo, B. S., & Ballestero, A. L. (2012). Overview of the most important open source software: analysis of the benefits of OpenMRS, OpenEMR, and VistA. In Telemedicine and e-health services, policies, and applications: Advancements and developments (pp. 315-346). IGI Global.2012Generalde Abajo 2012

Open Source
Mohammed-Rajput NA, Smith DC, Mamlin B, Biondich P, Doebbeling BN; Open MRS Collaborative Investigators. OpenMRS, a global medical records system collaborative: factors influencing successful implementation. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2011;2011:960-8. Epub 2011 Oct 22. PMID: 22195155; PMCID: PMC3243141.2011GlobalMohammed-Rajput 2011

Halland, K., & Britz, K. (2011). Investigations into the use of SNOMED CT to enhance an OpenMRS health information system. South African Computer Journal, 47(1), 33-45.2011South AfricaHalland 2011

Decision Support (CDS)

Evaluation of computer-generated reminders to improve CD4 laboratory monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa: a prospective comparative study.
Were MC, Shen C, Tierney WM, Mamlin JJ, Biondich PG, Li X, Kimaiyo S, Mamlin BW.J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2011 Mar-Apr;18(2):150-5.
Were 2011
Early clinical evaluation of the impact of OpenMRS (paper based) reminders on patient care
HIVManders, E. J., José, E., Solis, M., Burlison, J., Nhampossa, J. L., & Moon, T. (2010). Implementing OpenMRS for patient monitoring in an HIV/AIDS care and treatment program in rural Mozambique. In MEDINFO 2010 (pp. 411-415). IOS Press.2010MozambiqueManders 2010

Reproductive Health

Thompson, A., Castle, E., Lubeck, P., & Makarfi, P. S. (2010). Experience implementing OpenMRS to support maternal and reproductive health in Northern Nigeria. In MEDINFO 2010 (pp. 332-336). IOS Press.2010NigeriaThompson 2010

Early implementation of OpenMRS for maternal-child health
ImplementationTierney, W. M., Achieng, M., Baker, E., Bell, A., Biondich, P., Braitstein, P., ... & Tanzania-Uganda OpenMRS Consortium. (2010). Experience implementing electronic health records in three East African countries. In MEDINFO 2010 (pp. 371-375). IOS press.2010Tanzania
Tierney 2010

Capacity Building

Seebregts, C. J., Mamlin, B. W., Biondich, P. G., Fraser, H. S. F., Wolfe, B. A., Jazayeri, D., ... & Kanter, A. S. (2010). Human factors for capacity building. Lessons learned from the OpenMRS implementers network. Yearbook of medical informatics, 19(01), 13-20.2010GlobalSeebregts 2010

A second paper on the openMRS implementors and community
HIVBraitstein P, Ayuo P, Mwangi A, Wools-Kaloustian K, Musick B, Siika A, Kimaiyo S. Sustainability of first-line antiretroviral regimens: findings from a large HIV treatment program in western Kenya. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes. 2010;53(2):254-259.2010KenyaBraitstein 2010

Helped look at sustainability of firstline regimens

Nyandiko WM, Otieno-Nyunya B, Musick B, Bucher-Yiannoutsos S, Akhaabi P, Lane K, Yiannoutsos CT, Wools-Kaloustian K. Outcomes of HIV-exposed children in western Kenya: efficacy of prevention of mother to child transmission in a resource-constrained setting. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes. 2010;54(1):42-50.2010KenyaNyandiko 2010

Helped assess the effectiveness of the PMTCT program.

Open Source
Christopher J. Seebregts, Burke W. Mamlin, Paul G. Biondich, Hamish S.F. Fraser, Benjamin A. Wolfe, Darius Jazayeri, Christian Allen, Justin Miranda, Elaine Baker, Nicholas Musinguzi, Daniel Kayiwa, Carl Fourie, Neal Lesh, Andrew Kanter, Constantin T. Yiannoutsos, Christopher Bailey,
The OpenMRS Implementers Network, International Journal of Medical Informatics, Volume 78, Issue 11, 2009, Pages 711-720, ISSN 1386-5056,
2009GlobalSeebregts, 2009

Important early paper on OpenMRS community with Chris Seebregts one of the 4 co-founders as first author.
Allen, C., Jazayeri, D., Miranda, J., Biondich, P. G., Mamlin, B. W., Wolfe, B. A., ... & Fraser, H. S. (2007). Experience in implementing the OpenMRS medical record system to support HIV treatment in Rwanda. Studies in health technology and informatics, 129(1), 382.2007RwandaAllen 2007

Early work with OpenMRS in Rwanda




Allen C, Manyika P, Ufitamahoro E, Musabende A, Rich M, Jazayeri D, Fraser H. Expanding an electronic medical record to support community health worker and nutritional support programs in rural Rwanda. AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings. 2007 Oct 11:860.

2007RwandaAllen 2007
Early work with OpenMRS in Rwanda



Blaya JA, Shin SS, Yagui MJ, Yale G, Suarez CZ, Asencios LL, Cegielski JP, Fraser HS. A web-based laboratory information system to improve quality of care of tuberculosis patients in Peru: functional requirements, implementation and usage statistics. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making. 2007 Oct 28;7:33. 

2007PeruBlaya 2007
EMRThe AMPATH medical record system: creating, implementing, and sustaining an electronic medical record system to support HIV/AIDS care in western Kenya.
Tierney WM, Rotich JK, Hannan TJ, Siika AM, Biondich PG, Mamlin BW, Nyandiko WM, Kimaiyo S, Wools-Kaloustian K, Sidle JE, Simiyu C, Kigotho E, Musick B, Mamlin JJ, Einterz RM.Stud Health Technol Inform. 2007;129(Pt 1):372-6.
2007KenyaTierney 2007

General background on the early days of OpenMRS, it's precursor system and AmpathMRS.



Allen C, Manyika P, Jazayeri D, Rich M, Lesh N, Fraser H. Rapid deployment of electronic medical records for ARV rollout in rural Rwanda. AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings. 2006:840. 

2006RwandaAllen 2006 first paper describing the OpenMRS work in Rwanda. 
Open Source
Wolfe BA, Mamlin BW, Biondich PG, Fraser HS, Jazayeri D, Allen C, Miranda J, Tierney WM. The OpenMRS system: collaborating toward an open source EMR for developing countries. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2006;2006:1146. PMID: 17238765; PMCID: PMC1839362.2006GlobalWolfe 2006

Post version of the previous paper in the first year.
Open Source
Mamlin BW, Biondich PG, Wolfe BA, Fraser H, Jazayeri D, Allen C, Miranda J, Tierney WM. Cooking up an open source EMR for developing countries: OpenMRS - a recipe for successful collaboration. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2006;2006:529-33. PMID: 17238397; PMCID: PMC1839638.2006GlobalMamlin 2006

The first OpenMRS paper the year we first launched in Kenya, Rwanda and South Africa. 
Wools-Kaloustian K, Kimaiyo S, Diero L, Siika A, Sidle J, Yiannoutsos CT, Musick B, Einterz R, Fife KH, Tierney WM. Viability and effectiveness of large-scale HIV treatment initiatives in sub-Saharan Africa: experience from western Kenya. Aids. 2006;20(1):41-48.2006Kenya

Wools-Kaloustian 2006

Identified LTFU as an issue

EMRAMPATH Medical Record System (AMRS): collaborating toward an EMR for developing countries.
Mamlin BW, Biondich PG.AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2005;2005:490-4.
2005KenyaMamlin 2005

General background on the early days of OpenMRS describing one of the two precursor systems.


Biondich PG, Mamlin BW, Hannan TJ, Tierney WM. A Call For Collaboration: Building an EMR for Developing Countries.  AMIA Annual Symposium; 2005; Washington, D.C.; 2005. 

2005GlobalBiondich 2005 design and development underway

Fraser H, Biondich P, Moodley D, Choi S, Mamlin B, Szolovits P. Implementing electronic medical record systems in developing countries. Informatics in Primary Care. 2005;13:83-95. 

2005GlobalFraser 2005 designs and EHR projects in low income settings. Kind of a manifesto for OpenMRS design and use. Strangely has masses of citations even to this day...


(Early days)

Rotich JK, Hannan TJ, Smith FE, Bii J, Odero WW, Vu N, Mamlin BW, Mamlin JJ, Einterz RM, Tierney WM. Installing and implementing a computer-based patient record system in sub-Saharan Africa: the Mosoriot Medical Record System. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2003 Jul-Aug;10(4):295-303. doi: 10.1197/jamia.M1301. Epub 2003 Mar 28. PMID: 12668697; PMCID: PMC181978.2003KenyaRotich 2003 described the main precursor system of OpenMRS at AMPATH


(Early days)

Tierney WM, Rotich JK, Smith FE, Bii J, Einterz RM, Hannan TJ. Crossing the "digital divide:" Implementing an electronic medical record system in a rural Kenyan health center to support clinical care and research. Proc AMIA Symp 2002: 792-795. 

2002KenyaTierney 2002 described the main precursor system of OpenMRS at AMPATH


(Early days)

Hannan TJ, Tierney WM, Rotich JK, Odero WW, Smith F, Mamlin JJ, Einterz RM. The MOSORIOT medical record system (MMRS) phase I to phase II implementation: an outpatient computer-based medical record system in rural Kenya. Medinfo. 2001; 10(Pt 1):619-22. 

2001KenyaHannan 2001 described the main precursor system of OpenMRS at AMPATH