OpenMRS Evidence Hub

Have you written a published paper about OpenMRS? Know of one that's not listed here? Add it!

This page is our online repository of the many studies conducted exploring OpenMRS. Collectively, these studies provide strong evidence for a variety of use cases: the impact of EMR use on care, secondary data use for site or regional or global program guidelines improvement, and the community open source model. The OpenMRS Community maintains the OpenMRS Evidence Base and adds new studies as they are discovered.

Over 3,970 publications are noted online involving OpenMRS - search query here.

Note

This page is new and a work in progress as of August 2023. We are gradually, iteratively updating this with the thousands of articles published on OpenMRS, strongly prioritizing recent articles from within the last few years.

Category

Citation

Year

Country

Reference Key

URL

Misc. Notes

Category

Citation

Year

Country

Reference Key

URL

Misc. Notes

Interoperability

Standards-based

HL7 FHIR

Bacher I, Goodrich M, Kimaina A, Seaton M, Faulkenberry G, Vaish S, Flowers J, Fraser HS. FHIRing up OpenMRS: Architecture, Implementation and Real-World Use-Cases in Global Health. AMIA Jt Summits Transl Sci Proc. 2024 May 31;2024:162-171. PMID: 38827065; PMCID: PMC11141833.

2024

General

Bacher 2024

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC11141833/

 

Oncology, Cervical Cancer Screening

User Training

Crawford, E., Hebert, K. S., Gaju, S., Mumukunde, I., Dusengimana, J. M. V., & Hagenimana, M. (2024). Lessons From the Design and Rollout of an Electronic Medical Record System for Cervical Cancer Screening in Rwanda. Global Health: Science and Practice.

2024

Rwanda

Crawford 2024

https://doi.org/10.9745/GHSP-D-23-00469

Also provides helpful history of OpenMRS useage in Rwanda.

“OpenMRS uses a data dictionary concept that makes it easy to customize for different disease programs without having to reprogram, making it ideal for low-resource settings that usually have a challenge of technical expertise to support complex programming tasks.”

HIE, Interoperability

Standards-based

Surveillance

HIV

Oluoch, T., Byiringiro, B., Tuyishime, E., Kitema, F., Ntwali, L., Malamba, S., ... & Remera, E. (2024). Implementation of an HIV Case Based Surveillance Using Standards-Based Health Information Exchange in Rwanda. In MEDINFO 2023—The Future Is Accessible (pp. 875-880). IOS Press.

2024

Rwanda

Oluoch 2024

https://doi.org/10.3233/SHTI231090

 

HIS Leadership

HIS Maturity

eHealth Leaders

Strategy

Vumbugwa, P., Puttkammer, N., Majaha, M., Stampfly, S., Biondich, P., Shivers, J. E., ... & Feldacker, C. (2024). Leveraging Health Information System Maturity Assessments to Guide Strategic Priorities: Perspectives from African Leaders. medRxiv, 2024-02.

2024

General (Africa)

Vumbugwa 2024

https://doi.org/10.1101/2024.02.27.24303453

Extremely helpful quotes from Ministry of Health and HIS sector leaders on the challenges they face. 

Gastroenterology, Hospital

Macatiag IV, J. J., Mariño, B. A. M., Pajes, A. N. N. I., & Yasay, E. B. (2024). Adenoma Detection Rate and Polyp Detection Rate among Gastroenterology Fellows and Consultants in a Tertiary Hospital in the Philippines: A Cross-sectional Study. Acta Medica Philippina.

2024

Philippines

Macatiag 2024

https://doi.org/10.47895/amp.vi0.8395

Data from the OpenMRS system used at a tertiary hospital in the Philippines was used to assess Adenoma and Polyp Detection rates. 

Mental Health

Rural, Urban, Slum

Adult, Adolescent

Kallakuri, S., Gara, S., Godi, M., Yatirajula, S. K., Paslawar, S., Daniel, M., ... & Maulik, P. K. (2024). Learnings From Implementation of Technology-Enabled Mental Health Interventions in India: Implementation Report. JMIR Medical Informatics12, e47504.

2024

India

Kallakuri 2024

https://doi.org/10.2196/47504

Multiple mobile apps were used throughout different contexts (rural, urban; adult, adolescent) in India to evaluate mental health. All tools were actually built on OpenMRS.  

Implementation

Infrastructure

HIV

Njuba, L., Gómez‐Morantes, J. E., Herrera, A., & Camacho, S. (2024). Health information systems in extreme contexts: Using mobile phones to fight AIDS in Uganda. The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, e12314.

2024

Uganda

Njuba 2024

https://doi.org/10.1002/isd2.12314

Excellent review of how OpenMRS has been used for HIV care in Uganda, and implementation details. 

Insightful Quote: "In the KHCIV ART clinic alone, (before) the OpenMRS (system) was introduced, there was a large room full of paper files of HIV patients missing from care, with only 23% of patients active in the program, meaning that the remaining 77% have been lost in care, died, or migrated."

Privacy

Regulation Compliance

Code Review

Tang, F., & Østvold, B. M. (2024). Finding Privacy-relevant Source Code. arXiv preprint arXiv:2401.07316.

2024

Global

Tang 2024

https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2401.07316

Their study revealed that only 3.9% of the total OpenMRS codebase is made up of methods that are privacy-relevant and involved in personal data processing. This result highlights the precision of their approach in pinpointing privacy-relevant methods in applications.

Open Source eHealth

Haines, N. (2024). Sustainable Translation of Digital Health Technologies. Wellcome Open Res9(19), 19.

2024

Global

Haines 2024

https://doi.org/10.21955/wellcomeopenres.1115374.1

Helpful background on OpenMRS and comparison with other well known Open Source digital health solutions. 

Implementation

Infrastructure

HIV

Lober, W. B., Quiles, C., Wagner, S., Cassagnol, R., Lamothes, R., Alexis, D. R. P., Sutton, P., & Puttkammer, N. Three Years Experience with the Implementation of a Networked Electronic Medical Record in Haiti.

2024

Haiti

Lober 2024

PDF



CyberSecurity

Payment Fraud Prevention

Saranya, A., Naresh, R., Karuppiah, S., & Jenifer, M. (2024). Development of trust-based authorization and authentication framework for secure electronic health payment in cloud environment. Soft Computing, 1-16.

2024

Global

Saranya 2024

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00500-023-09514-w



Distributed Software Development

OpenMRS version 1 (O1)

HISP India

Krishna, S. (2023). Challenges and Solutions in Distributed Software Development: A case study from India on Hospital Information System built on OpenMRS framework. Reprosentralen, University of Oslo, Autumn 2023.

2023

India

Krishna 2023

https://www.duo.uio.no/bitstream/handle/10852/108527/5/Srinivas-Krishna-Master-Thesis---Final.pdf

Review of OpenMRS version 1 platform, useage in India by the HISP India team, visits at multiple healthcare sites in India, and challenges faced by software teams engaged in georgraphically distributed software development. 

Health information exchange HIE; Data quality; Viral load

Aniekwe, C., Cuffe, K., Audu, I., Nalda, N., Ibezim, B., Nnakwe, M., ... & Shrivastava, R. (2023). Assessing the effect of electronic health information exchange on the completeness and validity of data for measuring viral load testing turnaround time in Nigeria. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 174, 105059.

2023

Nigeria

Aniekwe 2023

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2023.105059

Demonstrated evidence of significant improvement in the quality of data available to measure viral load turnaround time with the implementation of HIE

COVID

HIV

Healthcare Workers

De Schacht C, Nhacule E, Belo C on behalf of the COVIV Study Collaborative Group, et al. Measuring the burden of SARS-CoV-2 infection among persons living with HIV and healthcare workers and its impact on service delivery in Mozambique: protocol of a prospective cohort studyBMJ Open 2023;13:e068988. 

2023

Mozambique

De Schacht 2023

10.1136/bmjopen-2022-068988 



PHC Primary Health Care

Kumar, Rajesh. Application of digital technologies in primary healthcare: Opportunities & challenges. Indian Journal of Medical Research 157(4):p 276-279, April 2023. | DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.ijmr_3056_21 

2023

India

Kumar 2023

10.4103/ijmr.ijmr_3056_21  



Machine Learning

Deduplication

Dixon, A., Thengo, L., Kitsao, E., Matiya, K., Barasa, M., Nyirongo, R., ... & Mbae, S. (2023). Community and Facility Health Information System Integration in Malawi: A Comparison of Machine Learning and Probabilistic Record Linkage Methods. ACM Journal on Computing and Sustainable Societies.

2023

Malawi

Dixon 2023

https://doi.org/10.1145/3624773 



Accessibility

Visual Impairment

Human-Computer Interaction (HCI)

OpenMRS v2

Moncy, M. M., Pilli, M., Somasundaram, M., Purkayastha, S., & Fulton, C. R. (2023). Evaluation of accessibility of open-source EHRs for visually impaired users. arXiv preprint arXiv:2311.02531.

2023

General

Moncy 2023

https://arxiv.org/abs/2311.02531#:~:text=https%3A//doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2311.02531 



HIV ARV

Retention, Resistance

Joaquim, L., Miranda, M. N., Pimentel, V., Martins, M. D. R. O., Nhampossa, T., Abecasis, A., & Pingarilho, M. (2023). Retention in Care and Virological Failure among Adult HIV-Positive Patients on First-Line Antiretroviral Treatment in Maputo, Mozambique. Viruses, 15(10), 1978.

2023

Mozambique

Joaquim 2023

https://doi.org/10.3390/v15101978 



Anemia / Anaemia

Anton-Vazquez V, Mnzava D, Okuma J, Mlembe S, Lo Riso L, Sanchez JM, et al. (2023) Improving anaemia diagnosis using peripheral blood smear with remote interpretation in adults living with HIV with moderate to severe anaemia: A prospective study nested within the Kilombero and Ulanga antiretroviral cohort. PLoS ONE 18(10): e0293084. 

2023

Tanzania

Anton-Vazquez 2023

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0293084



EMR

IPV, GBV

HIV Index Case Testing (ICT)

Mbah, Rogers, Honoré, Ngend. A Review of Index Case Testing Induced Intimate Partner Violence and Electronic Management of Information in HIV Care. xx (2023). 

2023

Cameroon

Mbah 2023

10.4236/etsn.2023.124005 

Recommendations: • Data tools for HIV AIDS should integrate IPV indicators. • Include management of IPV survivors in existing EMR systems. • Develop more comprehensive EMRs that include complete care continua, especially for low-income settings. • Countries with limited resources should consider OPENMRS to implement EMR. • Screening for IPV among HIV patients should be scaled up to reduce IPV incidence. • IPV counseling services should be offered post-HIV test counseling to control IPV incidence rates.

Interoperability

Standards

Mehmood, N.Q., Mahfooz, S.Z., Faroom, S. et al. Usability evaluation of interoperability interfaces in electronic medical record systems. Health Serv Outcomes Res Method (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10742-023-00312-3

2023

General

Mehmood 2023

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10742-023-00312-3



Open Source

EMR

ICD 10

Capacity Building

Mougou, S. (2023). Building Stronger Healthcare in Tunisia: EHR Implementation with Open Software and Local Capacity Building. In Open Infrastructure Fund/Fondo de Infraestructura Abierta.

2023

Tunisia

Mougou, 2023

https://openreview.net/forum?id=hVPDxT22Ze

Testing three EHR systems to determine their suitability for meeting the requirements discussed by working groups. Assessing the capability to: integrate both clinical data and genomic data; the capacity to incorporate standardized medical vocabulary in both English and French languages; along with its alignment with ICD10 standards

Open Source

Krasodomski-jones, A., & Eaves, D. (2023). Laying the Foundation for the Future: Open Source Sustainability and the Adoption of Digital Public Goods.

2023

General

Krasodomski-jones, 2023

https://policycommons.net/artifacts/3793098/laying-the-foundation-for-the-future/4598925/



Prenatal, ANC
EMR

Prieto-Egido, I., Garrido Madrigal, A., & Barrena García, C. (2023, February). Development and Validation of a Health Information System to Improve Prenatal Controls in Guatemala. In International Congress on Information and Communication Technology (pp. 109-127). Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore.

2023

Guatemala

Prieto-Egido 2023

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-981-99-3091-3_10



CDS
HIV

Magrabi, F., Cresswell, K., & Fraser, H. S. (2023). International dimensions of clinical decision support systems. In Clinical Decision Support and Beyond (pp. 145-188). Content Repository Only!.

2023

Kenya, Rwanda

Magrabi 2023

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/B9780323912006000139



HIV

Mnzava, D., Okuma, J., Ndege, R., Kimera, N., Ntamatungiro, A., Nyuri, A., ... & Weisser, M. (2023). Decentralization of viral load testing to improve HIV care and treatment cascade in rural Tanzania: observational study from the Kilombero and Ulanga Antiretroviral Cohort. BMC Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 222.

2023

Tanzania

Mnzava 2023

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12879-023-08155-6



Open Source
Software Architecture, Architectural Smells, Software Performance

Arcelli Fontana, F., Camilli, M., Rendina, D., Taraboi, A. G., & Trubiani, C. (2023, June). Impact of Architectural Smells on Software Performance: an Exploratory Study. In Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering (pp. 22-31).

2023

General
Team from: Italy

Fontana 2023

https://dl.acm.org/doi/pdf/10.1145/3593434.3593442



Thyroid Cancer
Ultrasound
Oncology

Bisquera, Valparaiso, Perez, Uy, Espiritu, Pialago, Clarit. A Single Institution Experience on the Correlation of Kwak Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System Score (Kwak TIRADS) and Malignancy of Thyroid Nodules seen in a Tertiary Hospital Setting. World Cancer Research Journal, 10, e2498.

2023

Philippines

Bisquera 2023

https://www.wcrj.net/article/2498



Medical Training

Capacity Building

Stephanie Medlock, Kim J. Ploegmakers, Ronald Cornet, Kim Win Pang, Use of an open-source electronic health record to establish a “virtual hospital”: A tale of two curricula, International Journal of Medical Informatics, Volume 169, 2023, 104907, ISSN 1386-5056, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2022.104907.

2023

Netherlands

Medlock 2023

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1386505622002210



COVID
Home monitoring

Sikder, A., Dickhoner, J., Kysh, L., Musheghyan, L., Shekherdimian, S., Levine, B., & Espinoza, J. (2022). International Collaboration to Develop a Remote Monitoring Web App for COVID-19 Patients in Armenia: Design and Development With Agile Methodology. JMIR Human Factors, 9(4), e40110.

2022

Armenia

Sikder 2022

https://europepmc.org/article/med/36350739

The software was designed and developed over 2 months using human-centered design and agile sprints. Once live, 5087 patient records were created for 439 unique patients.

HIV
ART
Disease Survillance

Fataha, N. V. F. A., Gaveta, S., Langa, J. C., Banze, A. R., Sacarlal, J., Rossetto, E. V., ... & Kellogg, T. A. (2022). Evaluation of the Mozambique Antiretroviral Therapy (MozART) database as an antiretroviral therapy patient surveillance system, 2017-2018. The Pan African Medical Journal, 42.

2022

Mozambique

Fataha 2022

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9429983/




COVID

Mirza, Muzna, Yoran Grant-Greene, Marie PJS Valles, Patrice Joseph, Stanley Juin, Stephan Brice, Patrick Dely et al. "Leveraging PEPFAR-supported health information systems for COVID-19 pandemic response." Emerging Infectious Diseases 28, no. Suppl 1 (2022): S49.

2022

Haiti

Mirza 2022

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9745247/



Tuberculosis

Siamisang, K., Rankgoane-Pono, G., Madisa, T. M., Mudiayi, T., & Tlhakanelo, J. T. (2022). Outcomes and predictors of tuberculosis mortality in Kweneng West District, Botswana: a retrospective cohort study. The Pan African Medical Journal, 42.

2022

Botswana

Siamisang 2022

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9142783/



OMOP

Espinoza, J., Sikder, A., Lulejian, A., & Levine, B. (2022). Development of an OpenMRS-OMOP ETL tool to support informatics research and collaboration in LMICS. Available at SSRN 4075625.

2022

General

Espinoza 2022

https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=4075625



Public Health
Open Source

Wanger, J., Cullen, T., Dunbar, E. L., & Flowers, J. L. (2023). Open-source software for public health: opportunities and approaches. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 50(8), S31.

2022

General

Wanger 2022

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC10348654/



HIV
ART

Kisaka, A. M. (2022). Test and treat policy: Effect on ART initiation and retention and health system barriers and facilitators to implementation in AHF Uganda Cares Clinics in Central Uganda (Doctoral dissertation, Makerere University).

2022

Uganda

Kisaka 2022

http://dspace.mak.ac.ug/handle/10570/10866

Results: The 30-days initiation rate was 62.7% before and 90.8% after the T&T policy rollout.

CDS

Fraser, H. S., Mugisha, M., Remera, E., Ngenzi, J. L., Richards, J., Santas, X., ... & Umubyeyi, A. (2022). User perceptions and use of an enhanced electronic health record in Rwanda with and without clinical alerts: cross-sectional survey. JMIR Medical Informatics, 10(5), e32305.

2022

Rwanda

Fraser 2022

https://medinform.jmir.org/2022/5/e32305/

A survey of user experience of a well established HIV implementation by the Rwanda MOH. Part of a larger OpenMRS research study of 112 health facilities in Rwanda.
The EHR top uses were to access client data easily or quickly (62/90, 69%), update patient records (56/89, 63%), create new patient records (49/88, 56%), generate various reports (38/85, 45%), and review previous records (43/89, 48%). In addition, >90% (81/90) of respondents agreed that the EHR made it easier to make informed decisions, was worth using, and has improved patient information quality. .... In intervention sites, staff were significantly more likely to update existing records (P=.04), generate summaries before (P<.001) or during visits (P=.01)

Maternity
Labor, Delivery

Dinh, N., Agarwal, S., Avery, L., Ponnappan, P., Chelangat, J., Amendola, P., ... & Bartlett, L. (2022). Implementation Outcomes Assessment of a Digital Clinical Support Tool for Intrapartum Care in Rural Kenya: Observational Analysis. JMIR Formative Research, 6(6), e34741.

2022

Kenya

Dinh 2022

https://formative.jmir.org/2022/6/e34741

An example of the use of the VecnaCARES maternal child health package using OpenMRS and their custom hardware package for sites with no infrastructure.

HIV
Adolescent

Ahimbisibwe, J. (2022). Factors associated with adherence to Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) among adolescents attending HIV clinic at China-Uganda Friendship Hospital-Naguru, Uganda (Doctoral dissertation, Makerere University).

2022

Uganda

Ahimbisibwe 2022

http://dspace.mak.ac.ug/handle/10570/10513



NTD



Ochoa, Rodrigo, Álvarez, Alessa, Freitas, Jordan, Purkayastha, Saptarshi, & Vélez, Iván D.. (2022). NTD Health: An electronic medical record system for neglected tropical diseases. Biomédica42(4), 602-610. Epub December 01, 2022.https://doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.6269

2022

Colombia

Ochoa 2022

http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?pid=S0120-41572022000400602&script=sci_arttext&tlng=en



Open Source

Paton C, Braa J, Muhire A, Marco-Ruiz L, Kobayashi S, Fraser H, Falcón L, Marcelo A. Open Source Digital Health Software for Resilient, Accessible and Equitable Healthcare Systems. Yearb Med Inform. 2022 Aug;31(1):67-73. doi: 10.1055/s-0042-1742508. Epub 2022 Jun 2. PMID: 35654431; PMCID: PMC9719763.

2022

Global

Paton 2022

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9719763



Maternity
PMTCT
HEI
Mentor Mothers

Carlucci, J. G., Yu Z., Gonzalez P., Bravo M., Amorim G., das Felicidades Cugara, C., Guambe, H., Mucanhenga, J., Silva, W., Tique, J. A., Alvim, M. F. S., Graves, E., De Schact, C., Wester, W. The Effect of a Mentor Mothers Program on Maternal and Infant PMTCT Outcomes in Zambézia Province, Mozambique.

2021

Mozambique

Carlucci 2023

https://www.vumc.org/friends-in-global-health/sites/default/files/public_files/docs/11.%20VUMC-FGH_MM_Final%20Report%20ESoP%20Final%20Report_revised_18Nov2021_clean.pdf



EMR
Global Goods
Open Source

Verma N, Mamlin B, Flowers J, Acharya S, Labrique A, Cullen T. OpenMRS as a global good: Impact, opportunities, challenges, and lessons learned from fifteen years of implementation. Int J Med Inform. 2021 May;149:104405. doi: 10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2021.104405. Epub 2021 Feb 5. PMID: 33639327.

2021

Global

Verma 2021

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33639327/



Implementation
EMR
Emergency

Mamlin, Burke W., Jennifer E. Shivers, Nancy K. Glober, and Jonathan J. Dick. "OpenMRS as an emergency EMR—How we used a global good to create an emergency EMR in a week." International Journal of Medical Informatics 149 (2021): 104433.

2021

USA

Mamlin 2021

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1386505621000599



ICD 11
API

Mugisha, M., Byiringiro, J. B., Uwase, M., Abizeyimana, T., Ndikubwimana, B., Karema, N., ... & Tumusiime, D. (2020). Integration of International Classification of Diseases version 11 application program interface (API) in the Rwandan electronic medical records (openMRS): findings from two district hospitals in Rwanda. In The Importance of Health Informatics in Public Health during a Pandemic (pp. 280-283). IOS Press.

2020

Rwanda

Mugisha 2020

https://ebooks.iospress.nl/doi/10.3233/SHTI200549

Michael Mugisha and colleague carry out research and implementation work with OpenMRS in Rwanda.

Machine Learning
HIV

Comparison of machine learning methods for predicting viral failure: a case study using electronic health record data.
Kimaina A, Dick J, DeLong A, Chrysanthopoulou SA, Kantor R, Hogan JW.Stat Commun Infect Dis. 2020 Nov 12;12(Suppl1):20190017.

2020



Kimaina 2020



Translation of AMRS-based research for improving patient care.

This study was one of the precursors for a large research study on the use of machine learning to improve loss to follow up of HIV patients in Kenya 

Oncology
Chemotherapy

Kabukye, J. K., Casaceli, A. M., Ball, E., De Armas, M., & Cornet, R. (2019). Towards an open-source oncology electronic medical records system for low-resource settings: development of chemotherapy management in OpenMRS. In MEDINFO 2019: Health and Wellbeing e-Networks for All (pp. 634-638). IOS Press.

2019

Uganda
Malawi
Rwanda
Haiti
USA

Kabukye 2019

https://ebooks.iospress.nl/doi/10.3233/SHTI190300



Interoperability

Patient Transfer

Rweikiza, G., & Machuve, D. (2019). Development of medical records exchange system-a case of OpenMRS and Care2X. International Journal of Advanced Technology and Engineering Exploration, 6(52), 77-83.

2019

Tanzania

Rweikiza 2019

https://www.accentsjournals.org/paperInfo.php?journalPaperId=1123

PDF



Diabetes

Yandrapalli, B. T., Jones, J., & Purkayastha, S. (2019). Development and Implementation of a Dashboard for Diabetes Care Management in OpenMRS. arXiv preprint arXiv:1910.11437.

2019

General

Yandrapalli 2019

https://arxiv.org/abs/1910.11437

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1910.11437.pdf



HIV

Humphrey JM, Genberg BL, Keter A, Musick B, Apondi E, Gardner A, Hogan JW, Wools-Kaloustian K. Viral suppression among children and their caregivers living with HIV in western Kenya. J Int AIDS Soc. 2019 Apr;22(4):e25272. doi: 10.1002/jia2.25272. PubMed PMID: 30983148; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6462809.

2019

Kenya

Humphrey 2018



Helped understand the link between parental viral suppression and child suppression

Radiology, RIS

Gichoya, J. W., Kohli, M., Ivange, L., Schmidt, T. S., & Purkayastha, S. (2018). A platform for innovation and standards evaluation: a case study from the OpenMRS open-source radiology information system. Journal of digital imaging, 31, 361-370.

2018

General

Gichoya 2018

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10278-018-0088-5



HIV
MCH
LTFU

Holmes CB, Yiannoutsos CT, Elul B, Bukusi E, Ssali J, Kambugu A, Musick BS, Cohen C, Williams C, Diero L, Padian N, Wools-Kaloustian KK. Increased prevalence of pregnancy and comparative risk of program attrition among individuals starting HIV treatment in East Africa. PLoS One. 2018 Jan 17;13(1):e0190828. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0190828. eCollection 2018. PubMed PMID: 29342180.

2018



Holmes 2018



Helped understand the impact of pregnancy and sex on retention in care

HIV
Drug Resistance
Pediatric

Wools-Kaloustian K, Marete I, Ayaya S, Sohn AH, Van Nguyen L, Li S, Leroy V, Musick BS, Newman JE, Edmonds A, Davies MA, Eboua FT, Obama MT, Yotebieng M, Sawry S, Mofenson LM, Yiannoutsos CT. Time to First-Line ART Failure and Time to Second-Line ART Switch in the IeDEA Pediatric Cohort. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes. 2018; PubMed [journal] PMID: 29509590

2018



Wools-Kaloustian 2018



Helped identify delays in switching failed regimens.

EMR
Open Source

Syzdykova A, Malta A, Zolfo M, Diro E, Oliveira JL. Open-Source Electronic Health Record Systems for Low-Resource Settings: Systematic Review. JMIR Med Inform. 2017 Nov 13;5(4):e44. doi: 10.2196/medinform.8131. PMID: 29133283; PMCID: PMC5703976.

2017

General

Syzdykova 2017

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5703976/



ANC, MCH

E. Kimei and K. Kalegele, "Digitization of antenatal health card and integration with OpenMRS platform: System analysis and design," 2017 IST-Africa Week Conference (IST-Africa), Windhoek, Namibia, 2017, pp. 1-7, doi: 10.23919/ISTAFRICA.2017.8101976.

2017

Tanzania

Kimei 2017

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/8101976



EMR

Bashiri, A., & Ghazisaeedi, M. (2017). Open MRS softwares: effective approaches in management of patients' health information. Int J Commun Med Publ Health, 4(11), 4.

2017

Global

Bashiri 2017

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Azadeh-Bashiri/publication/320646470_Open_MRS_softwares_effective_approaches_in_management_of_patients'_health_information/links/5b0021030f7e9be94bd8c8aa/Open-MRS-softwares-effective-approaches-in-management-of-patients-health-information.pdf



EMR
Ebola

Oza S, Jazayeri D, Teich J, Ball E, Nankubuge P, Rwebembera J, Wing K, Sesay A, Kanter A, Ramos G, Walton D, Cummings R, Checchi F, Fraser H. Development and Deployment of the OpenMRS-Ebola Electronic Health Record System for an Ebola Treatment Center in Sierra Leone
J Med Internet Res 2017;19(8):e294
DOI: 10.2196/jmir.7881

2017

Sierra Leone

Oza 2017

https://www.jmir.org/2017/8/e294/

The rapid assembly of a community of designers and developers to build a new tablet based UI and workflow for an Ebola treatment program in Sierra Leone. One of a handful of EHR like applications actually implemented and used for clinical care during the Ebola outbreak. 

Open Source

EMR

Kasthurirathne SN, Mamlin BW, Cullen T. Leveraging the Value of Human Relationships to Improve Health Outcomes. Lessons learned from the OpenMRS Electronic Health Record System. Appl Clin Inform. 2017 Feb 1;8(1):108-121. 

2017

Global

Kasthurirathne 2017

http://doi.org/10.4338/ACI-2016-08-RA-0139



Interoperability
Indicators
Reporting
DHIS2

Kariuki, J. M., Manders, E. J., Richards, J., Oluoch, T., Kimanga, D., Wanyee, S., ... & Santas, X. (2016). Automating indicator data reporting from health facility EMR to a national aggregate data system in Kenya: An Interoperability field-test using OpenMRS and DHIS2. Online journal of public health informatics, 8(2).

2016

Kenya

Kariuki 2016

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5266757/



Patient Outcomes
HIV

Evaluating strategies to improve HIV care outcomes in Kenya: a modelling study.
Olney JJ, Braitstein P, Eaton JW, Sang E, Nyambura M, Kimaiyo S, McRobie E, Hogan JW, Hallett TB.Lancet HIV. 2016 Dec;3(12):e592-e600.

2016

Kenya

Olney 2016





Interoperability
API
EMR

Kasthurirathne, S. N., Mamlin, B., Kumara, H., Grieve, G., & Biondich, P. (2015). Enabling better interoperability for healthcare: lessons in developing a standards based application programing interface for electronic medical record systems. Journal of medical systems, 39, 1-8.

2015

General

Kasthurirathne 2015

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10916-015-0356-6



Informatics Capacity Building

Building Comprehensive and Sustainable Health Informatics Institutions in Developing Countries: Moi University Experience.
Were MC, Siika A, Ayuo PO, Atwoli L, Esamai F.Stud Health Technol Inform. 2015;216:520-4.

2015



Were 2015



Building informatics capacity in Kenya; additional information on AmpathMRS. Per Ampath: "The publications using AMRS have helped us identify key gaps in the HIV care and treatment program including the high rate of LTFU from the first paper we published. We also used AMRS to inform MOH about VL testing in pregnancy a few years ago though this was not published as a paper. More recent use of AMRS data has been in IeDEA analysis that have looked at a number of things including new guideline adoption."

LTFU
HIV

Geng EH, Odeny TA, Lyamuya RE, Nakiwogga-Muwanga A, Diero L, Bwana M, Muyindike W, Braitstein P, Somi GR, Kambugu A, Bukusi EA, Wenger M, Wools-Kaloustian KK, Glidden DV, Yiannoutsos CT, Martin J. Estimation of Mortality among HIV-infected people on antiretroviral therapy treatment in east Africa: a sampling based approach in an observational, multisite, cohort study. Lancet HIV. 2015 Mar 1;2(3):e107-e116. PubMed PMID: 26120593; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4480204.

2015



Geng 2015



Identified LTFU patients to be tracked to help understand what was going on.

Informatics Capacity Building

"These are good problems to have…": establishing a collaborative research partnership in East Africa.
Tierney WM, Nyandiko WN, Siika AM, Wools-Kaloustian K, Sidle JE, Kiplagat J, Bell A, Inui TS.J Gen Intern Med. 2013 Sep;28 Suppl 3(Suppl 3):S625-38.

2013



Tierney 2013

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23797916/

Building informatics capacity in Kenya; additional information on AmpathMRS

Decision Support (CDS)
Pediatrics
HIV

Computer-generated reminders and quality of pediatric HIV care in a resource-limited setting.
Were MC, Nyandiko WM, Huang KT, Slaven JE, Shen C, Tierney WM, Vreeman RC.Pediatrics. 2013 Mar;131(3):e789-96.

2013



Were 2013



One of the most important clinical evaluation studies of the  impact of OpenMRS in improving care.

EMR

Open Source

Modular

Kasthurirathne, S. N. (2012). Designing and developing an open source medical informatics module. XRDS: Crossroads 19(2), 20-23. doi:10.1145/2382856.2382866 

2012



Kasthurirathne 2012

http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2382866



Open Source

de Abajo, B. S., & Ballestero, A. L. (2012). Overview of the most important open source software: analysis of the benefits of OpenMRS, OpenEMR, and VistA. In Telemedicine and e-health services, policies, and applications: Advancements and developments (pp. 315-346). IGI Global.

2012

General

de Abajo 2012

https://www.igi-global.com/chapter/content/64993



Implementation
EMR
Open Source

Mohammed-Rajput NA, Smith DC, Mamlin B, Biondich P, Doebbeling BN; Open MRS Collaborative Investigators. OpenMRS, a global medical records system collaborative: factors influencing successful implementation. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2011;2011:960-8. Epub 2011 Oct 22. PMID: 22195155; PMCID: PMC3243141.

2011

Global

Mohammed-Rajput 2011

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3243141/



Terminology
SNOMED
Tuberculosis

Halland, K., & Britz, K. (2011). Investigations into the use of SNOMED CT to enhance an OpenMRS health information system. South African Computer Journal, 47(1), 33-45.

2011

South Africa

Halland 2011

https://journals.co.za/doi/abs/10.10520/EJC28115



Decision Support (CDS)
HIV

Evaluation of computer-generated reminders to improve CD4 laboratory monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa: a prospective comparative study.
Were MC, Shen C, Tierney WM, Mamlin JJ, Biondich PG, Li X, Kimaiyo S, Mamlin BW.J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2011 Mar-Apr;18(2):150-5.

2011



Were 2011



Early clinical evaluation of the impact of OpenMRS (paper based) reminders on patient care

HIV

Manders, E. J., José, E., Solis, M., Burlison, J., Nhampossa, J. L., & Moon, T. (2010). Implementing OpenMRS for patient monitoring in an HIV/AIDS care and treatment program in rural Mozambique. In MEDINFO 2010 (pp. 411-415). IOS Press.

2010

Mozambique

Manders 2010





MCH
Reproductive Health

Thompson, A., Castle, E., Lubeck, P., & Makarfi, P. S. (2010). Experience implementing OpenMRS to support maternal and reproductive health in Northern Nigeria. In MEDINFO 2010 (pp. 332-336). IOS Press.

2010

Nigeria

Thompson 2010

https://ebooks.iospress.nl/volumearticle/13451

Early implementation of OpenMRS for maternal-child health

Implementation

Tierney, W. M., Achieng, M., Baker, E., Bell, A., Biondich, P., Braitstein, P., ... & Tanzania-Uganda OpenMRS Consortium. (2010). Experience implementing electronic health records in three East African countries. In MEDINFO 2010 (pp. 371-375). IOS press.

2010

Tanzania
Uganda
Kenya

Tierney 2010

https://ebooks.iospress.nl/doi/10.3233/978-1-60750-588-4-371



Implementation
Capacity Building

Seebregts, C. J., Mamlin, B. W., Biondich, P. G., Fraser, H. S. F., Wolfe, B. A., Jazayeri, D., ... & Kanter, A. S. (2010). Human factors for capacity building. Lessons learned from the OpenMRS implementers network. Yearbook of medical informatics, 19(01), 13-20.

2010

Global

Seebregts 2010

https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/html/10.1055/s-0038-1638681

A second paper on the openMRS implementors and community

HIV

Braitstein P, Ayuo P, Mwangi A, Wools-Kaloustian K, Musick B, Siika A, Kimaiyo S. Sustainability of first-line antiretroviral regimens: findings from a large HIV treatment program in western Kenya. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes. 2010;53(2):254-259.

2010

Kenya

Braitstein 2010



Helped look at sustainability of firstline regimens

PMTCT
HIV
MCH

Nyandiko WM, Otieno-Nyunya B, Musick B, Bucher-Yiannoutsos S, Akhaabi P, Lane K, Yiannoutsos CT, Wools-Kaloustian K. Outcomes of HIV-exposed children in western Kenya: efficacy of prevention of mother to child transmission in a resource-constrained setting. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes. 2010;54(1):42-50.

2010

Kenya

Nyandiko 2010



Helped assess the effectiveness of the PMTCT program.

EMR
Open Source

Christopher J. Seebregts, Burke W. Mamlin, Paul G. Biondich, Hamish S.F. Fraser, Benjamin A. Wolfe, Darius Jazayeri, Christian Allen, Justin Miranda, Elaine Baker, Nicholas Musinguzi, Daniel Kayiwa, Carl Fourie, Neal Lesh, Andrew Kanter, Constantin T. Yiannoutsos, Christopher Bailey,
The OpenMRS Implementers Network, International Journal of Medical Informatics, Volume 78, Issue 11, 2009, Pages 711-720, ISSN 1386-5056, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2008.09.005.

2009

Global

Seebregts, 2009

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1386505608001652

Important early paper on OpenMRS community with Chris Seebregts one of the 4 co-founders as first author.

Implementation
HIV

Allen, C., Jazayeri, D., Miranda, J., Biondich, P. G., Mamlin, B. W., Wolfe, B. A., ... & Fraser, H. S. (2007). Experience in implementing the OpenMRS medical record system to support HIV treatment in Rwanda. Studies in health technology and informatics, 129(1), 382.

2007

Rwanda

Allen 2007

https://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=KAnvAgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA382&dq=openmrs&ots=Uv2VU-P_-h&sig=IhgD3kpiqiA4_NhdNb2KTlo60HU&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=openmrs&f=false

Early work with OpenMRS in Rwanda

EMR

Nutrition

Rural

Allen C, Manyika P, Ufitamahoro E, Musabende A, Rich M, Jazayeri D, Fraser H. Expanding an electronic medical record to support community health worker and nutritional support programs in rural Rwanda. AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings. 2007 Oct 11:860.

2007

Rwanda

Allen 2007



Early work with OpenMRS in Rwanda

Tuberculosis

Labs

Blaya JA, Shin SS, Yagui MJ, Yale G, Suarez CZ, Asencios LL, Cegielski JP, Fraser HS. A web-based laboratory information system to improve quality of care of tuberculosis patients in Peru: functional requirements, implementation and usage statistics. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making. 2007 Oct 28;7:33. 

2007

Peru

Blaya 2007

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17963522



EMR

The AMPATH medical record system: creating, implementing, and sustaining an electronic medical record system to support HIV/AIDS care in western Kenya.
Tierney WM, Rotich JK, Hannan TJ, Siika AM, Biondich PG, Mamlin BW, Nyandiko WM, Kimaiyo S, Wools-Kaloustian K, Sidle JE, Simiyu C, Kigotho E, Musick B, Mamlin JJ, Einterz RM.Stud Health Technol Inform. 2007;129(Pt 1):372-6.

2007

Kenya

Tierney 2007



General background on the early days of OpenMRS, it's precursor system and AmpathMRS.

EMR

HIV

Allen C, Manyika P, Jazayeri D, Rich M, Lesh N, Fraser H. Rapid deployment of electronic medical records for ARV rollout in rural Rwanda. AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings. 2006:840. 

2006

Rwanda

Allen 2006

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17238460

The first paper describing the OpenMRS work in Rwanda. 

EMR
Open Source

Wolfe BA, Mamlin BW, Biondich PG, Fraser HS, Jazayeri D, Allen C, Miranda J, Tierney WM. The OpenMRS system: collaborating toward an open source EMR for developing countries. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2006;2006:1146. PMID: 17238765; PMCID: PMC1839362.

2006

Global

Wolfe 2006

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1839362/

Post version of the previous paper in the first year.

EMR
Open Source

Mamlin BW, Biondich PG, Wolfe BA, Fraser H, Jazayeri D, Allen C, Miranda J, Tierney WM. Cooking up an open source EMR for developing countries: OpenMRS - a recipe for successful collaboration. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2006;2006:529-33. PMID: 17238397; PMCID: PMC1839638.

2006

Global

Mamlin 2006

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1839638/

The first OpenMRS paper the year we first launched in Kenya, Rwanda and South Africa. 

HIV
LTFU

Wools-Kaloustian K, Kimaiyo S, Diero L, Siika A, Sidle J, Yiannoutsos CT, Musick B, Einterz R, Fife KH, Tierney WM. Viability and effectiveness of large-scale HIV treatment initiatives in sub-Saharan Africa: experience from western Kenya. Aids. 2006;20(1):41-48.

2006

Kenya

Wools-Kaloustian 2006



Identified LTFU as an issue

EMR

AMPATH Medical Record System (AMRS): collaborating toward an EMR for developing countries.
Mamlin BW, Biondich PG.AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2005;2005:490-4.

2005

Kenya

Mamlin 2005

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16779088/

General background on the early days of OpenMRS describing one of the two precursor systems.

EMR

Biondich PG, Mamlin BW, Hannan TJ, Tierney WM. A Call For Collaboration: Building an EMR for Developing Countries.  AMIA Annual Symposium; 2005; Washington, D.C.; 2005. 

2005

Global

Biondich 2005

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16779181

OpenMRS design and development underway

EMR

Fraser H, Biondich P, Moodley D, Choi S, Mamlin B, Szolovits P. Implementing electronic medical record systems in developing countries. Informatics in Primary Care. 2005;13:83-95. 

2005

Global

Fraser 2005

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15992493

Early designs and EHR projects in low income settings. Kind of a manifesto for OpenMRS design and use. Strangely has masses of citations even to this day...

EMR

(Early days)

Rotich JK, Hannan TJ, Smith FE, Bii J, Odero WW, Vu N, Mamlin BW, Mamlin JJ, Einterz RM, Tierney WM. Installing and implementing a computer-based patient record system in sub-Saharan Africa: the Mosoriot Medical Record System. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2003 Jul-Aug;10(4):295-303. doi: 10.1197/jamia.M1301. Epub 2003 Mar 28. PMID: 12668697; PMCID: PMC181978.

2003

Kenya

Rotich 2003

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12668697/

This described the main precursor system of OpenMRS at AMPATH

EMR

(Early days)

Tierney WM, Rotich JK, Smith FE, Bii J, Einterz RM, Hannan TJ. Crossing the "digital divide:" Implementing an electronic medical record system in a rural Kenyan health center to support clinical care and research. Proc AMIA Symp 2002: 792-795. 

2002

Kenya

Tierney 2002

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12463933

This described the main precursor system of OpenMRS at AMPATH

EMR

(Early days)

Hannan TJ, Tierney WM, Rotich JK, Odero WW, Smith F, Mamlin JJ, Einterz RM. The MOSORIOT medical record system (MMRS) phase I to phase II implementation: an outpatient computer-based medical record system in rural Kenya. Medinfo. 2001; 10(Pt 1):619-22. 

2001

Kenya

Hannan 2001

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11604811

This described the main precursor system of OpenMRS at AMPATH